Interpretation Registrar to Specify Forms References to Parent Company Forming Incorporated Company Requirements to Memorandum Powers of a Company Power Limited by Memorandum Exclusion of Deemed Notice Signature of Memorandum Memorandum Alteration Alteration of Objects Regulations for Companies Regulations for Unlimited Company Adoption and Application of Table A Printing and Signature of Articles Alteration of Articles Statutory Forms of M & AA Registration of M & AA Effect of Registration Power of Company to Hold Lands Certificate of Incorporation Unlimited Companies Reregistration Company Name Restrictions Power to Dispense Change of Name Company's Misleading Name Specification of Names Index of Company Names Effect of Memorandum & Articles Companies Limited by Guarantee Alterations in Memorandum & Articles Power to Alter Conditions Copies of Memorandum & Articles Issued Copies of Memorandum Definition of Member Membership of Holding Company Meaning of Private Company Private Company Privileges Form of Contracts Pre-incorporation Contracts Bills of Exchange & Promissory Notes Execution of Deeds Abroad Power to Have Official Seal Authentication of Documents Dating of Prospectus Specific Requirements Exemption from Compliance Advertisements on Prospectuses Publishing Guildelines by Commission Expert's Consent Registration of Prospectus One Document Prospectus More Than One Document Prospectus Submission of Certified Copies Civil liability for Misstatements Criminal Liability for Misstatements Right to Damages and Compensation Offer of Shares or Debentures Interpretation of Provisions Prohibition of Allotment: Subscription Prohibition of Allotment: Statement Effect of Irregular Allotment Applications for Shares & Debentures Allotment of Shares and Debentures Return as to Allotments Power to Pay Commissions Financial assistance prohibited Definitions Transactions not prohibited by 47A Restriction for Listed Companies Section 47A for Unlisted Companies Statement Under Section 47E Special Resolution Under Section 47E Financial assistance under section 47E Offering Shares to the Public Premiums on Issue of Shares Merger Relief Relief of Group Reconstructions Provisions to Sections 48C and 48D Relief from Section 48B Power to Issue Redeemable Shares Financing of Redemption Company Power to Purchase Shares Requirements for Listed Company Payments Apart From Purchase Price Authority for Purchase Authority for Purchase Contract Assignment of Right to Purchase Shares Disclosure of Share Purchase Capital Redemption Reserve Power to Redeem Shares out of Capital Availability of Profits Conditions for Payment out of Capital Procedure for Special Resolution Publicity for Proposed Payment Objections by Company's Members Powers of Court on Application Effect of Company's Failure to Redeem Power to Modify Certain Sections Transitional Cases: Sections 49 to 49S Definitions for Sections 49 to 49R Power to Issue Shares at a Discount Arrangement for Amounts Paid on Shares Reserve Liability of Limited Company Power to Alter Share Capital Share Capital Consolidation Notice of Increase of Capital Reserve Share Capital on Re-registration Power of Company to Pay Interest Non Voting Shares Approval for Allotment of Shares Validation of Shares Improperly Issued Resolution for Share Capital Reduction Application for Confirming Order Order Confirming Reduction Registration of Order Registration of Special Resolution Liability of Members Concealing Name of Creditor Variation of rights Rights of Shareholders Documents on Shareholder Rights Nature of Shares Numbering of Shares Transfer not to be Registered Transfer by Personal Representative Registration of Transfer Notice of Refusal to Register Transfer Certification of Transfers Issue of Certificates Certificate to be Evidence of Title Replacement of Lost Certificate Evidence of Grant of Probate Share Warrants to Bearer Official Seals for Share Certificates Making Compensation for Losses Register of Debenture Holders Provision of Instrument Register of Debenture Holders Meetings of Debenture Holders Liability of Trustees Perpetual Debentures Power to Re-issue Redeemed Debentures Contracts to Subscribe for Debentures Payment of Certain Debts Interpretation Certain Distributions Prohibited Restriction on Distribution of Assets Exemption of Certain Companies Realised Profits of Insurance Company Distribution to Be Justified Last Annual Accounts Requirement for Interim Accounts Requirements for Initial Accounts Method of Applying Section 79F Treatment of Assets Distributions in Kind Consequences of Unlawful Distribution Saving for Provision in Articles Application to Certain Companies Saving for Other Distribution Restraints Registration of Charges Charges Created by the Company Charges Existing on Property Charges to be Kept by Registrar Entries of Satisfaction Extension of Time for Registration Appointment of Receiver or Manager Copies of Instruments Company's Register of Charges Right to Inspect Instrument Copies Application of Part III Registered Office of Company Publication of Name of Company Adequacy of Certain Descriptions Register of Members Company Statement Index of Members of Company Entries in Register to Share Warrants Inspection of Register of Members Failure to Comply with Requirements Power to Close Register of Members Power of Court to Rectify Register Trusts not Entered on Register Register to be Evidence Keeping Branch Register Regulations as to Branch Register Registers of Oversea Companies Company Annual Return General Provisions: Annual Returns Certificates Sent by Private Company Annual General Meeting Extraordinary General Meeting Notice for Calling Meetings Meetings and Votes Quorum: One Company Member Power of Court to Order Meeting Proxies Right to Demand a Poll Voting on a Poll Representation of Companies Circulation of Members' Resolutions Special Resolutions Restriction on Alteration of Articles Written Resolutions of Companies Duty to Notify Auditors Written Resolutions: Supplementary Written Record Resolutions Requiring Special Notice Certain Resolutions and Agreements Resolutions at Adjourned Meetings Minutes of Proceedings of Meetings Place to Keep Minute Book Inspection of Minute Books Keeping of Books of Account Profit and Loss Account Contents and Form of Accounts Obligation to Lay Group Accounts Form of Group Accounts Contents of Group Accounts Financial Year of Holding Company Particulars in Relation to Subsidiaries Companies not being Subsidiaries Subsidiary Company's Accounts Signing of Balance Sheet Accounts and Auditors' Report Directors' Report Proviso to Section 141C Sections 129D and 129E Right to Receive Copies Appointment & Removal of Auditors Supplementary Provisions Powers of Auditors False Statements to Auditors Disqualifications: Auditor Appointment Resignation of Auditor Right of Auditor who Resigns Auditor's Report and Rights Construction of References Restrictions on Financial Reports Notices of Intent Relevant Dates Duties of Listed Companies Financial Reports not to be Sent Form and Contents of Reports Prohibition Orders Compliance with Section 129G Requirements as to Accounts Investigation of Company Affairs Company Affairs in Other Cases Power of an Inspector Documents on Investigation Delegation of Powers by Inspector Power to Call for Director's Accounts Inspector's Report Extension of Secretary's Powers Proceedings on Inspector's Report Expenses of Investigation Inspector's Report to be Evidence
Companies Ordinance Cap 32

Section Num: 40     Version Date 03/12/2004

Civil liability for misstatements in prospectus

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, where a prospectus invites persons to subscribe for shares in or debentures of a company, the following persons shall be liable to pay compensation to all persons who subscribe for any shares or debentures on the faith of the prospectus for the loss or damage they may have sustained by reason of any untrue statement included therein, that is to say-

(a) every person who is a director of the company at the time of the issue of the prospectus;

(b) every person who has authorized himself to be named and is named in the prospectus as a director or as having agreed to become a director either immediately or after an interval of time;

(c) every person being a promoter of the company; and

(d) every person who has authorized the issue of the prospectus:

Provided that where under section 38C the consent of a person is required to the issue of a prospectus and he has given that consent, he shall not by reason of his having given it be liable under this subsection as a person who has authorized the issue of the prospectus except in respect of an untrue statement purporting to be made by him as an expert.

(1A) Subsection (1)(d) shall not apply-

(a) to the Commission;

(b) where the relevant prospectus is authorized by a recognized exchange company pursuant to a transfer order made under section 25 of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap 571), to the Commission or the recognized exchange company; or

(c) where the relevant prospectus is authorized by a recognized exchange controller pursuant to a transfer order made under section 68 of that Ordinance, to the Commission or the recognized exchange controller.  (Replaced 5 of 2002 s. 407)

(2) No person shall be liable under subsection (1) if he proves-

(a) that, having consented to become a  director of the company, he withdrew his consent before the issue of the prospectus, and that it was issued without his authority or consent; or

(b) that the prospectus was issued without his knowledge or consent, and that on becoming aware of its issue he forthwith gave reasonable public notice that it was issued without his knowledge or consent; or

(c) that, after the issue of the prospectus and before allotment thereunder, he, on becoming aware of any untrue statement therein, withdrew his consent thereto and gave reasonable public notice of the withdrawal and of the reason therefor; or

(d) that-

(i) as regards every untrue statement not purporting to be made on the authority of an expert or of a public official document or statement, he had reasonable ground to believe, and did up to the time of the allotment of the shares or debentures, as the case may be, believe, that the statement was true; and

(ii) as regards every untrue statement purporting to be a statement by an expert or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from a report or valuation of an expert, it fairly represented the statement, or was a correct and fair copy of or extract from the report or valuation, and he had reasonable ground to believe and did up to the time of the issue of the prospectus believe that the person making the statement was competent to make it and that person had given the consent required by section 38C to the issue of the prospectus and had not withdrawn that consent before delivery of a copy of the prospectus for registration or, to the defendant's knowledge, before allotment thereunder; and

(iii) as regards every untrue statement purporting to be a statement made by an official person or contained in what purports to be a copy of or extract from a public official document, it was a correct and fair representation of the statement or copy of or extract from the document:

Provided that this subsection shall not apply in the case of a person liable, by reason of his having given a consent required of him by the said section 38C, as a person who has authorized the issue of the prospectus in respect of an untrue statement purporting to be made by him as an expert.

(3) A person who, apart from this subsection would under subsection

(1) be liable, by reason of his having given a consent required of him by section 38C, as a person who has authorized the issue of a prospectus in respect of an untrue statement purporting to be made by him as an expert, shall not be so liable if he proves-

(a) that, having given his consent under the said section 38C to the issue of the prospectus, he withdrew it in writing before delivery of a copy of the prospectus for registration; or

(b) that, after delivery of a copy of the prospectus for registration and before allotment thereunder, he, on becoming aware of the untrue statement, withdrew his consent in writing and gave reasonable public notice of the withdrawal, and of the reason therefor; or

(c) that he was competent to make the statement and that he had reasonable ground to believe and did up to the time of the allotment of the shares or debentures, as the case may be, believe that the statement was true.

(4) Where-

(a) the prospectus contains the name of a person as a director of the company, or as having agreed to become a director thereof, and he has not consented to become a director, or has withdrawn his consent before the issue of the prospectus, and has not authorized or consented to the issue thereof; or

(b) the consent of a person is required under section 38C to the issue of the prospectus and he either has not given that consent or has withdrawn it before the issue of the prospectus, the directors of the company, except any without whose knowledge or consent the prospectus was issued, and any other person who authorized the issue thereof shall be liable to indemnify the person named as aforesaid or whose consent was required as aforesaid, as the case may be, against all damages, costs and expenses to which he may be made liable by reason of his name having been inserted in the prospectus or of the inclusion therein of a statement purporting to be made by him as an expert, as the case may be, or in defending himself against any action or legal proceeding brought against him in respect thereof:

Provided that a person shall not be deemed for the purposes of this subsection to have authorized the issue of a prospectus by reason only of his having given the consent required by section 38C to the inclusion therein of a statement purporting to be made by him as an expert.

(5) For the purposes of this section-

(a) the expression "promoter" means a promoter who was a party to the preparation of the prospectus, or of the portion thereof containing the untrue statement, but does not include any person by reason of his acting in a professional capacity for persons engaged in procuring the formation of the company; and

(b) the expression "expert" (Ma) has the same meaning as in section 38C.

(6) This section shall apply to a publication falling within section 38B(2) as if the publication were a prospectus.  (Added 30 of 2004 s. 2)

(7) It is hereby declared that, for the purposes of this section, "persons who subscribe for any shares or debentures" includes persons specified in the Twenty-second Schedule.  (Added 30 of 2004 s. 2)

(Replaced 78 of 1972 s. 7)

[cf. 1948 c. 38 s. 43 U.K.]

Our latest offshore news
30/09/2006
Welcome to join our discussions
on Offshore Companies, Incorporations,
Jurisdictions, etc..
23/10/2007
A company operating in Hamburg, Beiersdorf Aktiengesellschaft has recently announced entering a share purchase agreement with a BVI-incorporated Global Source Investments Limited and Hong Kong-incorporated C-BONS Holding (International) Limited.
02/07/2007
Hong Kong Financial Secretary Henry Tang suggests that issuing renminbi-denominated financial bonds in Hong Kong will reinforce its banking status. Monetary Authority Chief Executive Joseph Yam has also commented on this issue.
20/06/2007
According to the data released by the Census & Statistics Department of Hong Kong, the BVI is one of the top destinations for Hong Kong's external factor income outflow and inflow in Quarter 1 of 2007.
15/06/2007
The government of Hong Kong has published its final report on the public consultation on tax reform to provide recommendations about exploring some options aimed at the development and enlargement of narrow tax base in Hong Kong.
02/06/2007
On May 28, 2007, the launch of Unsolicited Electronic Messages Ordinance from June 1 was announced by Hong Kong's Commerce, Industry & Technology Bureau. The Ordinance is to be carried out in 2 phases.
20/05/2007
At the Swiss Private Bankers' Association's meeting, Hong Kong Financial Secretary Henry Tang invited swiss bankers to use Hong Kong as a regional base for managing their businesses in Asia.
12/05/2007
At the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office Seminar named "Hong Kong - New Opportunities as an International Financial Centre", Joseph Yam announced a strategy to make a greater Hong Kong's contribution to the reform and liberalisation of the Mainland China and to maintain the status of Hong Kong as an international financial centre.
27/04/2007
On April 25, 2007, Hong Kong Financial Secretary Henry Tang told legislators that from 2004 to 2005 growth in Hong Kong's combined fund-management business was on 25%.
12/04/2007
According to the Global Financial Centers Index (GFCI), Hong Kong is the 3rd most competitive financial centre in the world.
30/03/2007
India's largest public sector bank in terms of aggregate business, Canara Bank announced that it is opening the 1st branch in Hong Kong, which is an expanding move for the bank.
12/03/2007
At the 14th APEC SME Ministerial Meeting, Director-General of the Hong Kong Trade & Industry department, stated that Hong Kong's favourable business environment is underpinned by the rule of law, free flow of capital and information, a low and simple tax regime, an independent judiciary and an efficient government.
21/02/2007
According to the announcement made by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) on February 7, 2007, Hong Kong's official foreign currency reserve assets amounted to the total of USD 133.7 billion in the end of January 2007.
09/02/2007
Hong Kong Monetary Authority announced the amount of official foreign currency reserve assets on the end of January 2007, which totalled at USD 133.7 billion.
01/02/2007
Rewrite of the Companies Ordinance will bring substantial benefits to Hong Kong, especially in strengthening competitiveness of the jurisdiction and its status as a global business and financial centre.
29/01/2007
Hong Kong is to receive benefits from increased links with the market of mainland China, as stated by Hong Kong Monetary Authority Chief Executive.
26/01/2007
New Anti-Money Laundering rules are introduced by Hong Kong's Security Bureau. Customers' identities and record transactions of HK$ 8 000 dollars or more must be verified by remittance agents and money changers.
17/01/2007
The Heritage Foundation has ranked Hong Kong as the freest economy in the world for the 13th consecutive year. It is followed by Singapore and Australia.
06/01/2007
Comparing to 2005, property sale and purchase agreements in Hong Kong in 2006 fell 19.9%. This fact was released on January 4, 2007 by the Land Registry.
03/01/2007
Financial Secretary of Hong Kong, Henry Tang understands people's high expectations for the 2007-2008 Budget, however, he suggests the necessity of a balance between the interests of different parties when devising it.
21/12/2006
In November, inflation in Hong Kong accelerated to 2.2% on higher clothing, housing and food prices. To compare this figure, the Census and Statistics Department indicates 2% inflation in October.
08/11/2006
According to the IMF, the economy of Hong Kong is expected to grow by 6% this year and maintain growth of 5% in 2007. The IMF stated that growth prospects will depend on the management and expanding the evolving financial integration with the Mainland.
30/10/2006
In Hong Kong, two new banking regulations have been gazetted to be tabled at the Legislative Council on November 1. These are the Banking (Capital) Rules and Banking (Disclosure) Rules. The rules are to be in force from January 1, 2007.
18/10/2006
According to the UN's World Investment Report 2006, Hong Kong attracted USD 35.9 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) last year, up 5.6% on 2004. So, Hong Kong is the 2nd-largest FDI destination in Asia after China, which amassed USD 72.4 billion.
16/10/2006
Hong Kong is likely to refuse discussing joining the EU's tax information-sharing scheme applied under the Savings Tax Directive. The EU would like to sign the Agreement and include information-sharing there.
25/11/2007
Recently, the Seychelles International Business Authority has sponsored Asia Offshore Association (AOA) Conference in Vietnam, and International Tax Planning Association (ITPA) meeting in Hong Kong.